When it comes to the truth about radiation and health effects, there are no experts who are honest - not in government, not in science, not anywhere. Yet, people would rather listen to liars than challenge their assumptions about the sources of the so-called truth and disregard the purveyors of actual truth on this topic: the non-creditialed self-taught. - Andrew Kishner, May 18, 2013
You are reading from a free online e-book titled 'Deception, Cover-up and Murder in the Nuclear Age.' The book discusses the Trinity test, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, hydrogen bomb testing fallout, U.S. experiments done on Marshall Islanders (Project 4.1), the Irene Allen trial, Cosmos 954, the Fukushima meltdowns, Three Mile Island updates, and so much more. Visit the Table of Contents to find this free content.
Footnotes are located at the end of each chapter - press the (right facing) 'PAGE' button icon until you reach the footnotes page, or locate it via the table of contents
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|Appendix 12 - Fukushima Daiichi - Cesium-137 levels from nuclear events compared to Fukushima|
'The radioactivity of 137Cs in collected surface soils [east of Nagasaki] was also measured and ranged from 3.3 to 188 mBq/g (or 9.2-526 mBq/cm2) within 2-5 km east of the hypocentre (Fig. 5). Between 5 and 13.2 km, it ranged from 2.22 to 67.6 mBq/g (6.2-81.8 mBq/cm2), with an average of 7.5 mBq/g...The range of 137Cs was from 7.5 to 188 mBq/g (or 25.0 times difference) at the highest region, 2-5 km east of hypocentre...There were major peaks for ...137Cs (... 164.6 mBq/cm2) in the sediment core collected from the bottom of Nishiyama reservoir.' [cited in the journal article 'Plutonium Mass Balance Released from the Nagasaki A-bomb and the Applicability for Future Environmental Research,' [Appl. Radiat. Isot. Vol. 46, No. 11, pp. 1089-1098, 1995]
The paper 'Geographical distribution of plutonium derived from the atomic bomb in the eastern area of Nagasaki,' (Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, Vol. 273, No.1 (2007) 183-186) lists cs137 levels in soils in Nagasaki Prefecture that range from 4 to 77 Bq/kg, or roughly 11 to 214 mBq/cm2, or 0.1 to 2.14 kBq/m2.
A map produced in the American Scientist Magazine shows cesium-137 background levels in the continental U.S. of generally 100 to 1,000 Bq/m2 (lower on the West Coast). This is equivalent to 0.1 to 1 kBq/m2 or 10 to 100 mBq/cm2. (Simon, Steven L., Bouville, Andre, and Lund, Charles, 2006 Fallout from Nuclear Weapons Tests and Cancer Risks. American Scientist Online, Volume 94, Number 1 January-February 2006 DOI:10.1511/2006.1.48)
"The residual radioactivity [on Rongelap] island was quite low in 1999. Indeed the maximum 137Cs contamination was 39 kBq/m2. This value that is ten times higher than values in Japan due to the global fallout of world wide nuclear tests and is much lower than the values found in highly contaminated territory due to the Chernobyl accident.5,7 The value in Zaborie village which is the most contaminated territory in Russia due to the Chernobyl accident, was 6.3 MBq/m2 at the maximum in 1997...We found that one site nearby a beach was highly contaminated with 137Cs of 3.4 MBq/m2 [3,400 kBq/m2]..." ('Radiological status of Rongelap Island in 1999,' J. Takada, M. Yamamoto, Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, Vol. 252, No. 2 (2002) 261-266)
The highest cs137 value from a recent graduate project that analyzed soil samples in southern Utah was 1,821 Bq/m2 (Enterprise, Utah), or 182.1 mBq/cm2.
This 182.1 mBq/cm2 value was from a recent a study (here) of residual Cesium 137 contamination in southwestern Utah soil following the nuclear weapons tests at the Nevada Test Site in the 1950's and 1960's by R. Blair Bentley, Oregon State University. Bentley writes in the abstract:
'According to estimates from the NCI and DOE, Washington County, Utah was one of the areas which received some of the highest levels of radioactive contamination from Nuclear Fallout....A study was conducted using soil samples from the Washington County area to determine if Cesium 137 still exists in the area in detectable amounts. 102 soil samples were collected and analyzed. Only one of the 102 soil samples did not have detectable amounts of Cesium contained within it. Several of the samples contained levels substantially higher than earlier estimates would have predicted. This leads us to conclude that doses to the public from the testing could also have been higher than earlier thought. The area immediately around the community of Enterprise Utah contained the highest contamination readings of the locations we researched. Iron County, Northeast of St George, also had surprisingly high readings considering that the studies we researched stated that Iron County's contamination density was estimated to be lower than most of the areas in Washington County.'
Bentley found that St. George, Utah, may have not received the highest level of fallout in Utah as most believe. Instead, Iron County, the county to the north, may have been worse hit. He also believes that doses to the public from Nevada Test Site testing fallout also could have been higher than earlier thought based on government estimates. Bentley found that current Cesium-137 levels are under EPA thresholds but that in the past - perhaps around the 1970s - levels of radioactive Cesium in (public) soils may have surpassed current EPA standards. (That means that using our current EPA standards, soils, prior to nuclear decay and erosion, were once unsafe for human 'use'.) The study didn't look at radioisotopes still detectable in Utah soils, such as Strontium-90, Cobalt-60, etc....and so what about the combined effects of all radioisotopes still lingering in Utah soils? Is that sum total of lingering fallout below current EPA thresholds? Did that sum total in recent decades exceed maximum public radiation standards?
The graduate study also proves there are still unknown hotspots - areas that received high amounts of fallout. In some areas, the fallout-radioisotopes have since decayed to safe levels, but damage was done and downwinders are paying the price with their health. In other areas, the fallout is still toxic but the dangers are still not known by the public. The website of 'Downwinders United' describes 24 areas across America that were hardest hit by NTS fallout. So, we should be asking not only if St. George is still 'hot,' but also if Myhometown, USA, is still radioactive!
Are radioactive soils being lofted to an extent that should worry us? A 2003 scientific paper titled 'Resuspension: Decadal Monitoring Time Series of the Anthropogenic Radioactivity Deposition in Japan' in the Journal of Radiation Research documents the authors' quest to find out why, in the 1990s (and through the present), levels of Cesium-137 and Strontium-90 in sampled Japanese soils weren't decreasing, as expected from their decay half-lives and decreasing fallout from the stratosphere. They were flat-lining. Meaning, something was adding Cs137 and Sr90 (and plutonium) to Japan's soils! They found that this 'anthropogenic radioactivity' (meaning 'manmade' radioactivity) wasn't primarily coming from the stratosphere, nor the oceans, nor nuclear power plants. They found it was coming from 'reservoirs' on the ground: '...resuspension is the major factor in radioactivity deposition...suspended soil dust (surface soil particles) is the source of anthropogenic radionuclides in ambient air.' They deduced resuspension from 'large-scale meteorological dust events' (winds and storm activity) in arid areas of East Asia are lifting-up legacy nuclear fallout into the air, where, presumably, it would travel hundreds or thousands of miles . They note 'Hence, resuspension (surface soil dust suspension) must be a universal process injecting detectable amounts of anthropogenic radioactivity into the ambient air.'
Although the study authors may be correct in general that 'health effects to the individual member....are insignificant at the current level found' from these resuspension processes, what about dust resuspension from nuclear test sites like Maralinga in Australia and the Nevada Test Site? Certainly, plutonium dust from Area 13 of the NTS, an unremediated site from a notorious plutonium-239 dispersal experiment, is injecting plutonium into the U.S. air supply continuously! Plutonium from the NTS gets regularly resuspended during high-winds and storm activity, and floats downwind to other states and even beyond the U.S. borders.
Listen to the free 30-minute audio-documentary: The Dragon That Slew St. George (real audio stream) produced by Wayne Brittenden.
View a snap-shot of the soil-sampling Google map that we re-created from Bentley's study - The numbers next to each peg in the map below illustrates the amount of Becquerels per container; the container had a volume capacity of 600 milliLiters; each value needs to be multiplied by 100 to roughly estimate the levels of radiation in Becquerels per meter squared, a common measure of deposition density. Multiply each Becquerel unit by 27 to convert to PicoCuries (or 2,700 to get pCi/m2).
'The population of Belarus that lived in the areas contaminated by Caesium-137 over 37 kBq/m2 consisted of 2,105,200 persons (including over 500 thousand children). To a greater degree a quarter of the territory and one fifth of the population of the republic were affected.' p. 187 [European Committee on Radiation Risk's 'Chernobyl: 20 Years On,' 2006 No 1]
'Among the population living or who lived on territories with a Caesium-137 contamination density over 37 kBq/m2, the scientifically significant increase of the sickness rate by malignant diseases of the respiratory organs, digestive organs and by breast cancer has been confirmed, as well as genetic dysfunctions and congenital malformations.' pp.194-5 [European Committee on Radiation Risk's 'Chernobyl: 20 Years On,' 2006 No 1]
'The National Report of Belarus 2003 mentions that the main concern within this society is that of the state of health of the children living within territories with a radiocaesium contamination density of 37 to 555 kBq/m2 which is characterized by an increase in the sickness rate, a decrease in the number of fully healthy children and an increase in immune system disorders."' p.201 [European Committee on Radiation Risk's 'Chernobyl: 20 Years On,' 2006 No 1]
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