When it comes to the truth about radiation and health effects, there are no experts who are honest - not in government, not in science, not anywhere. Yet, people would rather listen to liars than challenge their assumptions about the sources of the so-called truth and disregard the purveyors of actual truth on this topic: the non-creditialed self-taught. - Andrew Kishner, May 18, 2013
You are reading from a free online e-book titled 'Deception, Cover-up and Murder in the Nuclear Age.' The book discusses the Trinity test, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, hydrogen bomb testing fallout, U.S. experiments done on Marshall Islanders (Project 4.1), the Irene Allen trial, Cosmos 954, the Fukushima meltdowns, Three Mile Island updates, and so much more. Visit the Table of Contents to find this free content.
Footnotes are located at the end of each chapter - press the (right facing) 'PAGE' button icon until you reach the footnotes page, or locate it via the table of contents
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|Chapter 11 - The 'bad science' behind nuclear reactors|
Gaseous radioactive waste - Dumped in YOUR neighborhood
Most radioactive products from reactors are or were once a krypton or a xenon gas. Most of these are radioactive and long-enough-lived that they linger in the air for minutes, hours or years after routine or accidental emissions from reactors.
What very few people know is that some gases emitted by reactors precipitate - outside of the reactor walls - into dangerous carcinogens in the solid form like the 'bone seeker ' strontium 90 (and its daughter a pituitary gland seeker, Yttrium-90). Other gases, like krypton-87, are neutron-activators.
About 8 percent of the elements created in the fission process comprise radioactive noble gases of krypton and xenon. These gases include:
(kr = krypton; xe=xenon; m=metastable; β = beta; γ=gamma; α=alpha; n=neutron)
'miles traveled on 10mph wind' is the distance on a flat plain (i.e. Nebraska) that will be traveled by a plume of gas by the time 99% of the gas decayed, see section 'Buoyancy of radioactive gases from reactors' for more
Buoyancy of radioactive gases from reactors
Routine gaseous releases from nuclear power plant exhaust stacks consist of radioactive isotopes of water (tritium), carbon, argon, xenon and krypton. The xenon and krypton radioactive gases often include isotopes that are precursors to solid radionuclides such as Strontium-89, Strontium-90, Cerium-141, Cerium-143, Cerium-144, Cesium-135 and Cesium-137.
The distance at which solid radionuclides land from a nuclear reactor depends, in part, on the gas density, wind direction, speed, heat, stack height, etc...
Let's examine gas density. Most radioactive gases are heavier than air. A rare radioactive gas that's lighter than air is carbon-14, which occurs both from natural and human-made (pollution) processes. Carbon-14, however, oxides easily into radioactive carbon-dioxide that settles down to Earth and becomes part of the biosphere. Common heavy radioactive gases include iodine-131 and krypton-90, which are both created in nuclear explosions and nuclear reactors. Iodine-131 has a density of 5.85 g/L (it is a very heavy gas) and krypton-90 has a density of 4.0 g/L. (Dry air has a density of about 1.2 grams per Liter (this is in units of weight per volume)).
To figure the 'buoyancy' of a gas, we use the formula:
buoyancy (per liter of gas) = mass x (1 - (density of air/density of gas))
So, for Kr90, we have 4.0 x (1 - (1/4.0))= 4 x (.75) = 3 grams/Liter (3 g/L is also written as 3 kilograms/cubic meter)
If Force=Mass X Acceleration, then by multiplying the 'buoyant mass' in one cubic meter (3 kg) by the constant for gravity (9.8 m/s2), we get the number of Newtons of lift, or 29.4 Newtons.
To figure the acceleration (down to the ground), we use the re-written formula [Acceleration=Force/Mass ]. So, if the force is 29.4 N, and the mass (in a cubic meter of Kr90 gas) is 4 kilograms, then acceleration is 7.35 meters per second squared.
So, if krypton 90 is released from a 100 meter high stack from a nuclear reactor, then in zero winds it would take roughly 5 seconds for the krypton 90 to hit the ground. However, the gases coming out of reactors are at hot temperatures and this substantially increases the volume of the gas. As a gas expands, the density decreases and the acceleration constant to Earth decreases. Whether krypton and xenon gases are rising from a fireball from a nuclear explosion or the stack of a reactor, they actually ascend because when they are very hot they are lighter than air, temporarily. As the gas temperature cools, the density increases, and it begins accelerating back down to Earth.
Nearly all of the leaked radioactive gas products from a reactor ends up settling in low-lying areas or river valleys downwind. Sometimes these areas 'downwind' can be 5 or 100 miles away from a reactor. However, winds, weather fronts and other weather conditions can move the pockets of low-lying radioactive air both near and far. A pocket of radioactive gases can travel over significant territory over weeks and months while its gases take weeks or years to fully decay. For example, xenon-133 has a half-life of 5.25 days - it is radioactive for over 100 days - and Krypton 85 has a half-life of about 11 years and it is 'hot' for over 200 years.
We all breathe in this radioactive air - that includes our pets, our farm animals and even edible plants. In humans, radioactive xenons and kryptons incorporate into our tissues, shooting out gamma rays through our body (even while you're reading this), increasing our risk of cancer, genetic damage and decreasing our immune health.
You can find out the density of any gas by taking the atomic weight (aka mass) for any isotope, radioactive or not, and dividing it by 22.4 (which is the 'molar volume of a gas' - 22.4 L/mol).
Toxic gas emissions from reactors located on rivers accumulate in the bottom of the river valley and travel in the downstream direction.
The specific density of Krypton 90 is 3.107, calculated by divided Mass (gas) by Mass (air) or 90 g/mole/28.96443 g/mole =3 .107 (air=1.0)
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