When it comes to the truth about radiation and health effects, there are no experts who are honest - not in government, not in science, not anywhere. Yet, people would rather listen to liars than challenge their assumptions about the sources of the so-called truth and disregard the purveyors of actual truth on this topic: the non-creditialed self-taught. - Andrew Kishner, May 18, 2013
You are reading from a free online e-book titled 'Deception, Cover-up and Murder in the Nuclear Age.' The book discusses the Trinity test, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, hydrogen bomb testing fallout, U.S. experiments done on Marshall Islanders (Project 4.1), the Irene Allen trial, Cosmos 954, the Fukushima meltdowns, Three Mile Island updates, and so much more. Visit the Table of Contents to find this free content.
Footnotes are located at the end of each chapter - press the (right facing) 'PAGE' button icon until you reach the footnotes page, or locate it via the table of contents
|Chapter 10 - Underground Nuclear Tests||
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There are well over 200 different radioactive elements produced in any nuclear detonation. This mixture of 'fission products', which is called nuclear waste in reactors and fallout in nuclear detonations, varies over time in the quantities of radioactive gases compared to radioactive solids. In the first nanoseconds of a nuclear blast, a very large percentage of the 'fission products' is in gaseous form. As time goes by, the percentage of solids increases. In the arena of atomic elements, solids form usually from the decay of radioactive noble gases. The 'decay' is a energetic 'powerplay' that spews harmful rays called ionizing radiation.
When a nation hypothetically secretly conducts an underground nuclear blast or openly conducts one but shares no details about the test, the easiest way to learn the technical details of the blast is by detecting radioactive gases before they decay into solids. Most - yes, most - undergroud nuclear explosions leak. They leak for the same reason that radon, a naturally occuring radioactive gas, rises from the soil and through all forms of porous rock.1. Radioactive gases leaked by underground tests can last up to decades before 'decaying' and can travel distances of hundreds or thousands of miles away from the 'ground zero.' But, as time goes by, and this is the case for all radioactive gases, bit by bit of the gaseous radiation decays into solids.
After a suspected nuclear blast, scientists across the globe search for what is called a 'gas signature' of the atomic explosion. They test the air for two short-lived gaseous isotopes of xenon gas (Xenon-133 and Xenon-135). The snafu in this approach is that North American air has a relatively constant 'mix' of these two radioactive gases that come from nuclear reactors and radiopharmaceutical plants. These peacetime activities release radioactive xenon gases that, like greenhouse gases, mix together to create a homogenous 'blend' in our atmosphere that is constantly refortified by new radioactive pollution. The gases released by a nuclear detonation, however, contain a slightly diifferent mix or blend of these two radioactive xenon gases. This is why scientists look for a 'gas signature' (a blend of xenon gases that differs from 'normal' air) in pockets of 'fresh' contaminated air from the explosion. The problem is that xenon-135 gas transforms every minute into a solid radio-chemical (called cesium-135) and this decay slowly 'brings down' the plume's unique 'blend' until it mimics that of normal air. So, the challenge with detecting nuclear explosions is, firstly, finding an air pocket from the leaked explosion and, secondly, finding it before two or three weeks have passed (beyond that time the 'evidence' has decayed, or 'melted away.')
Nuclear physics experts and international organizations responsible for nuclear weapons treaty verification have issued volumes of reports that detail elaborately complicated schemes for facilitating this often impossible 'manhunt' for gaseous proof that a country blew up a nuke. But there is a very, very easy solution to the detection problem: de-pollute our atmopshere and reduce to zero the atmospheric inventory of xenon-133 and xenon-135 gases by phasing out nuclear reactors and radiopharmaceutical plants. This way we would have near flawless ability, extending well beyond two weeks, to tell if a clandestine nuclear explosion occurred anywhere around the world! Regrettably, nations of the globe don't want to pay this price to gain a huge advantage in curbing nuclear proliferation.4
Following North Korea's second nuclear test in May 2009, South Korea, Japan and the U.S. conducted sampling of the air downwind of the North Korean test site but North Korea knew how to stiffle their efforts - they closed the 'window of time' for detection by shooting off test missiles into the air forcing the postponement of airplane 'sniffing' (radioactive gas sampling) efforts as xenon gases dispersed and decayed.
It worked. The U.S. and her allies tried to detect traces of radioactive xenon gases from North Korea's test but they failed. Some speculated that North Korea faked a test. Others believed the reclusive nation's weapons scientists succeeded in a rare 100% containment of the gases.
Global non-proliferation organizations have put so much effort into detecting clandestine nuclear blasts yet they have done little to warn the globe's populations of the dangers of the opposite problem, a 'containment failure' that leaks so much radiation that it would be a repeat of the public health radiation crisis of the 1950s and 1960s. If a North Korean nuclear test results in a containment failure that leads to significant venting, the damaging global public health impacts could be significant. These such organizations even refuse to admit or inform citizens that a public danger exists from late-time seeps from North Korea's, or Russia's, or America's, or France's, or India's, or Pakistan's or China's plugged underground testing shafts, tunnels and cavities. These countries' subterranean test site areas perpetually bottle radioactive gases that could experience ground-level leaks or 're-criticality' of closely-packed fissile materials
North Korea's 2nd nuclear test in 2009 was similar in size (although no one knows what the yield really was) to Baneberry. Baneberry was a U.S. underground nuclear blast at the Nevada Test Site that shot up and broke through the ground in 1970 and spewed fallout in no different a manner than a small nuclear attack on American soil.5 According to the book 'Killing Our Own', 'In all of the states where the total radioactivity [from Baneberry's fallout] rose highest--Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Nevada, Washington, Nebraska, and as far away as Minnesota and Maine--infant mortality also rose sharply during the first three months after the test.' The book also states that dangerously high concentration of Iodine-131, a radiation byproduct, was found in the milk of Utah and Nevada cows which had eaten vegetation exposed to Baneberry's fallout.
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